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MySQL Run Query in Production

When running queries in your production environment, you have to be careful so you don’t bring it down or make a mistake that will cause your environment to act abnormally.

Here are some things you need to be careful about:

Run query with READ UNCOMMITTED option

 The MySQL READ UNCOMMITTED, also known as “dirty read” because it is the lowest level of isolation. If we specify a table hint then it will override the current default isolation level. MySQL default isolation level is REPEATABLE READ which means locks will be placed for each operation, but multiple connections can read data concurrently.


Run query against a backup table first

Do everything you can to run query againts dev, qa, or backup database before running your query against a production database. And when you do run your query against your production database, make sure to do it first against backup tables and then the actual tables. A lot of times you will find that as a safety net in case you make a mistake on first try, you will be safe as that would be against the backup and not the actual live data. Once everything looks good in the backup tables then you can run your query against the actual live data.

Make sure dev database server is the same(version) as the production server

Make sure that when running queries that your dev database server has the same version as your production database server. If they have to be in different versions the production server must be in higher version than the dev server. In most cases where the version is not the same the dev server is in higher version so be careful about that. The reason for this check is that you may have a query that works in dev and won’t work in production because the query uses functions that the production server does not support. For example. JSON_ARRAYAGG  is not in mysql version 5.7. My dev server was in mysql 8 and production server was in 5.7. Not until release day that I realized my database migration was not going to work in production and had to pull it back.

Avoid running migration insert/update scripts during operational hours. 

If possible, run insert/update migration scripts during slow or off hours. There is a good chance you will run into issues especially with updating data based on existing data in the database. You might not be reading live data to perform updates as users are using and updating your data.

Always have someone else take a second look at your query

You can never go wrong with having help and verifying your query is doing what is intended to do. In most cases, you work in a team, you should have a team member or your team lead look at your query to make sure it’s doing what is intended to do. You can’t take a risk of running a query that may change thousands of records without having someone else review it.


September 13, 2021

MySQL Json

MySQL supports the native JSON data type since version 5.7.8. The native JSON data type allows you to store JSON documents more efficiently than the JSON text format in the previous versions.

MySQL stores JSON documents in an internal format that allows quick read access to document elements. The JSON binary format is structured in the way that permits the server to search for values within the JSON document directly by key or array index, which is very fast.

The storage of a JSON document is approximately the same as the storage of LONGBLOB or LONGTEXT data.

Json Data type

    browser_info JSON,

Insert into json column

INSERT INTO events(browser_info) 
   '{ "name": "Safari", "os": "Mac", "resolution": { "x": 1920, "y": 1080 } }'

Automatic validation of JSON documents stored in JSON columns. Invalid documents produce an error.

Json Object

Evaluates a (possibly empty) list of key-value pairs and returns a JSON object containing those pairs. An error occurs if any key name is NULL or the number of arguments is odd.

'lastName',u.first_name) as jsonUser
FROM user as u;

Json Array

Evaluates a (possibly empty) list of values and returns a JSON array containing those values.

u.first_name) as jsonUser
FROM user as u;

Json Object Agg
Return result set as a single JSON object
Takes two column names or expressions as arguments, the first of these being used as a key and the second as a value, and returns a JSON object containing key-value pairs. Returns NULL if the result contains no rows, or in the event of an error. An error occurs if any key name is NULL or the number of arguments is not equal to 2.


SELECT JSON_OBJECTAGG(u.id, u.firstName, u.lastName) as jsonData
FROM user as u;

// output
  "id": 1,
  "firstName": "John",
  "lastName": "Peter"

Json Array Agg

Return result set as a single JSON array
Aggregates a result set as a single JSON array whose elements consist of the rows. The order of elements in this array is undefined. The function acts on a column or an expression that evaluates to a single value. Returns NULL if the result contains no rows, or in the event of an error.

SELECT JSON_PRETTY(JSON_OBJECT('userId', u.id, 'cards', cardList)) as jsonData
FROM user as u
LEFT JOIN (SELECT c.user_id, 
        'cardId', c.id,
        'cardNumber', c.card_number)
        ) as cardList
    FROM card as c
    GROUP BY c.user_id) as cards ON u.id = cards.user_id;
  "cards": [
      "cardId": 4,
      "cardNumber": "2440531"
      "cardId": 11,
      "cardNumber": "4061190"
  "userId": 1

How to accomplish JSON_ARRAYAGG before version 5.7.8

SELECT JSON_PRETTY(JSON_OBJECT('userId', u.id, 'cards', cardList)) as jsonData
FROM user as u
LEFT JOIN (SELECT c.user_id, 
        'cardId', c.id,
        'cardNumber', c.card_number)
        ), ']') as cardList
    FROM card as c
    GROUP BY c.user_id) as cards ON u.id = cards.user_id;


Json Pretty

Provides pretty-printing of JSON values similar to that implemented in PHP and by other languages and database systems. The value supplied must be a JSON value or a valid string representation of a JSON value. 

'lastName',u.first_name)) as jsonUser
FROM user as u;

Json Extract

 json_extract(json_docpath[, path] ...) 

Returns data from a JSON document, selected from the parts of the document matched by the path arguments. Returns NULL if any argument is NULL or no paths locate a value in the document. An error occurs if the json_doc argument is not a valid JSON document or any path argument is not a valid path expression.



July 25, 2021

MySQL Trigger


A MySQL trigger is a stored program that is invoked automatically in response to an event such as INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE to a particualar table.

There are two types of triggers

  1. Row-level trigger: a row-level trigger is activated for each row that is inserted, updated, or deleted.
  2. Statement-level trigger: a statement-level trigger is executed once for each transaction regardless of how many rows are inserted, updated, or deleted. MySQL supports only row-level triggers. It doesn’t support statement-level triggers.

Advantages of triggers

  1. Triggers provide another way to check the integrity of data
  2. Triggers handle errors from the database layer
  3. Triggers are another way to run cron jobs.
  4. Triggers can be useful for auditing the data changes in tables.

Disadvantages of triggers

  1. Triggers can only use extended validations but not all validations. You can use NOT NULL, UNIQUE, CHECK, and FOREIGN KEY contraints.
  2. Triggers can be difficult to troubleshoot because they execute automatically in the database which may not be visible to clients.
  3. Triggers may increase the overhead of the MySQL server.

Create a Trigger

  1. Specify the name of the trigger – CREATE TRIGGER trigger_name
  2. Specify trigger type – AFTER INSERT
  3. Specify the name of the table for which you want to create the trigger for – ON table_name
  4. Specify the trigger body that will run every the trigger is invoked.
CREATE TRIGGER trigger_name
    ON table_name FOR EACH ROW
   -- statements
   -- variable declarations

   -- trigger code


CREATE TRIGGER after_members_insert
    IF NEW.birthDate IS NULL THEN
        INSERT INTO reminders(memberId, message)
        VALUES(new.id,CONCAT('Hi ', NEW.name, ', please update your date of birth.'));
    END IF;

Triggers only run for the new, updated, or deleted rows. They don’t touch those rows that didn’t get updated.

Show triggers


[{FROM | IN} database_name]
[LIKE 'pattern' | WHERE search_condition];
SHOW TRIGGERS; -- return all triggers in all databases
FROM database_name; -- show triggers from database_name

The only way to edit a trigger is by dropping and recreating it.

DROP TRIGGER [IF EXISTS] [schema_name.]trigger_name;


December 9, 2020

MySQL Dump

Most of the times, you want to backup your databases to have backups to prevent loosing data. If you don’t backup your databases, a code bug or a server/disk failure could be a disaster. To help save you lots of time and frustration, it is strongly recommended that you take the precaution of regularly backing up your MySQL databases. You use mysqldump to back up your databases.

shell> mysqldump [options] > backup.sql

options – mysqldump options

backup.sql – the back up file

If the database size is very large it is a good idea to compress the output. To do that simply pipe the output to the gzip utility, and redirect it to a file as shown below:

mysqldump -u - root -p database_name | gzip > database_name.sql.gz

Authentication with username, password, and host

To get into the server, you must have the username and password for authentication. You use the -u for username and -p for password. By default –host is localhost so you can omit it when working with your localhost. Make sure you specify your host uri when you are not pointing to your localhost.

mysqldump -u username -p --host localhost database_name > backup.sql

You can even specify the username and password like this

mysqldump -uusername -ppassword -hlocalhost database_name > backup.sql

Dump all databases

To dump entire databases, do not name any tables following db_name, or use the --databases or --all-databases option.

mysqldump -u root -p --all-databases > all_databases.sql

Dump a single database

To backup a single MySQL database with one command you need to use the --databases option followed by the name of the database. You can also omit the –database option which is a more common way of doing this. Note that by using the --databases option, you will have the CREATE DATABASE command which is useful on restoring.

mysqldump -u root -p database_name > backup.sql
mysqldump -u root -p --databases database_name > backup.sql

Dump a single database with a timestamp

If you want to keep more than one backup in the same location, then you can add the current date to the backup filename:

mysqldump  database_name > database_name-$(date +%Y%m%d).sql

Dump multiple databases

To backup multiple MySQL databases with one command you need to use the --database option followed by the list of databases you want to backup. Each database name must be separated by space.  mysqldump  treats the first name argument on the command line as a database name and following names as table names. With this option, it treats all name arguments as database names.

mysqldump -u root -p --databases database_name_a database_name_b > backup_a_b.sql

Dump only some tables within a database

If you use the –databases then you have to use the –tables option to specify the tables.

mysqldump -u username -p database_name table_name1 table_name2 > backup.sql

// if --databases option is specified
mysqldump -u username -p --databases database_name --tables table_name1 table_name2 > backup.sql

Dump only some table rows within a database table

The –where option is applied to all tables not just one. There is only one –where option. You might be thinking to use the –where option for each table but that does not work. In case you configure this command with multiple –where options, only the last –where option will be evaluated.

mysqldump -u username -p database_name table_name --where="id<=100" > few_rows_backup.sql

Dump with store procedures

mysqldump will backup by default all the triggers but NOT the stored procedures/functions. There are 2 mysqldump parameters that control this behavior:

  • --routines – FALSE by default
  • --triggers – TRUE by default

so in mysqldump command , add --routines. Include triggers for each dumped table in the output. This option is enabled by default; disable it with --skip-triggers. --routines includes stored routines (procedures and functions) for the dumped databases in the output. This option requires the global SELECT privilege.

mysqldump -u root -p --triggers --routines --databases database_name > backup.sql


Create a cron job to backup a database on your mac

  1. Type crontab -e on your terminal to open your cron jobs
  2. Add a crontab command
  3. * * * * *  command to execute
    │ │ │ │ │
    │ │ │ │ └─── day of week (0 - 6) (0 to 6 are Sunday to Saturday, or use names; 7 is Sunday, the same as 0)
    │ │ │ └──────── month (1 - 12)
    │ │ └───────────── day of month (1 - 31)
    │ └────────────────── hour (0 - 23)
    └─────────────────────── min (0 - 59)
  4. 0 * * * * /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqldump -u root database_name > {location}/database_name-$(date +"%Y%m%d").sql

    Command to execute is the dump command which, in this case, is run every hour.

  5. Delete file over 30 days old
    0 * * * * /Users/folaukaveinga/db_backups -type f -name "*.sql" -mtime +30 -delete


Restore MySQL Dump

You can restore a MySQL dump using the mysql command. 

mysql -u username -p  database_name < backup.sql

In some cases, you need to create a database to import into because you did not use the –databases option when creating the dumb.

mysql -u root -p -e "create database database_name";
mysql -u root -p database_name < backup.sql

Restore a single database

If you backed up all your databases using the -all-databases option and you want to restore a single database from a backup file which contains multiple databases use the --one-database option.

mysql -u username -p --one-database database_name < backup.sql

Export and Import a MySQL database in one command

Instead of creating a dump file from one database and then import the backup into another MySQL database you can use the following one-liner.

mysqldump -uLocalUsername -pLocalPassword --databases local_database_name | mysql -hRemoteHost -uRemoteUsername -pRemotePassword remote_database_name


October 14, 2020

MySQL Deadlock

A deadlock is a situation where different transactions are unable to proceed because each holds a lock that the other needs. Because both transactions are waiting for a resource to become available, neither ever release the locks it holds. A deadlock can occur when transactions lock rows in multiple tables (through statements such as  UPDATE  or  SELECT ... FOR
 ), but in the opposite order. A deadlock can also occur when such statements lock ranges of index records and gaps, with each transaction acquiring some locks but not others due to a timing issue.

To avoid deadlock

To reduce the possibility of deadlocks, use transactions rather than  LOCK TABLES  statements; keep transactions that insert or update data small enough that they do not stay open for long periods of time; when different transactions update multiple tables or large ranges of rows, use the same order of operations (such as  SELECT ... FOR
 ) in each transaction. Using both row-level locking and the TRANSACTION_READ_COMMITTED isolation level makes it likely that you will avoid deadlocks (both settings are Derby defaults). However, deadlocks are still possible.

Minimize and handle deadlocks

Deadlocks are a classic problem in transactional databases, but they are not dangerous unless they are so frequent that you cannot run certain transactions at all. Normally, you must write your applications so that they are always prepared to re-issue a transaction if it gets rolled back because of a deadlock.

InnoDB uses automatic row-level locking. You can get deadlocks even in the case of transactions that just insert or delete a single row. That is because these operations are not really “atomic”; they automatically set locks on the (possibly several) index records of the row inserted or deleted.

Keep transactions small and short in duration to make them less prone to collision.

Commit transactions immediately after making a set of related changes to make them less prone to collision. In particular, do not leave an interactive mysql session open for a long time with an uncommitted transaction.

When modifying multiple tables within a transaction, or different sets of rows in the same table, do those operations in a consistent order each time. Then transactions form well-defined queues and do not deadlock. For example, organize database operations into functions within your application, or call stored routines, rather than coding multiple similar sequences of INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE statements in different places.


Deadlock detection

When a transaction waits more than a specific amount of time to obtain a lock (called the deadlock timeout), Derby can detect whether the transaction is involved in a deadlock.

When you configure your system for deadlock and lockwait timeouts and an application could be chosen as a victim when the transaction times out, you should program your application to handle them.

Run this command to show the latest deadlock



October 13, 2020