Javascript Callback Function

A callback function is a function passed into another function as an argument, which is then invoked inside that function at a later time. JavaScript statements are executed line by line. However, with effects, the next line of code can be run even though the effect is not finished. This can create errors. To prevent this, you can create a callback function.

Callback Function Synchronous

<h4 class="text-center">Callback function synchronous</h4>
<div class="row">
    <div class="col-3">
        <button onclick="checkin()" type="button" class="btn btn-outline-primary">Check In Synchronous</button>
    </div>
    <div class="col-6">
        <div class="text-center" id="welcomeNote"></div>
    </div>
</div>


<!-- Callback function synchronous -->
<script>
function checkin(){
    console.log("checkin...");
    checkUser(greeting);
    console.log("checkin done!");
}
function greeting(name) {
    console.log("greeting...");
    alert('Hey ' + name);
    document.getElementById("welcomeNote").innerHTML = "Welcome "+name+"!";
    console.log("greeting done!");
}

function checkUser(callback) {
    console.log("checkUser...");
    var name = prompt('What is your name?');
    callback(name);
    console.log("checkUser done!");
}
</script>

 

Callback functions are often used to continue code execution after an asynchronous operation has completed. A good example is the callback functions executed inside a .then() block chained onto the end of a promise after that promise completes or rejects. This structure is used in many modern web APIs, such as fetch().

Callback Function Asynchronous

<h4 class="text-center">Callback function asynchronous</h4>
<div class="row">
    <div class="col-3">
        <button onclick="checkApi()" type="button" class="btn btn-outline-primary">Check In Asynchronous</button>
    </div>
    <div class="col-6">
        <div class="text-center" id="apiNote"></div>
    </div>
</div>

<!-- Callback function asynchronous -->
<script>
function checkApi(){
    console.log("checkApi...");
    getRandomNumber(showApiResult);
    console.log("checkApi done!");
}

function getRandomNumber(showApiResult){
    let apiEndpoint = "https://www.random.org/integers/?num=1&min=1&max=6&col=1&base=10&format=plain&rnd=new";
    $.get(apiEndpoint, function(data, status){
        console.log(status);
        console.log(data);
        showApiResult(data);
    });
}

function showApiResult(randomNumber){
    document.getElementById("apiNote").innerHTML = "Here is your random number "+randomNumber+"!";
}
</script>

Callback Function jQuery

<h4 class="text-center">Callback function with jQuery</h4>
<div class="row">
    <div class="col-3">
        <button onclick="checkjQuery()" type="button" class="btn btn-outline-primary">Check In jQuery</button>
    </div>
    <div class="col-6">
        <div class="text-center" id="jqueryNote"></div>
    </div>
</div>
<!-- Callback function asynchronous with jquery -->
<script>
$(document).ready(function(){
    /**
    Note: use this to reference variables and functions
    */
    this.name = "Folau";

    this.checkjQuery = function(){
        console.log("checkjQuery...");
        this.getJQueryRandomNumber(this.showJQueryApiResult);
        console.log("checkjQuery done!");
    }

    this.getJQueryRandomNumber = function(showJQueryApiResult){
        console.log("getJQueryRandomNumber...");
        // reference this to outside function.
        var self = this;
        let apiEndpoint = "https://www.random.org/integers/?num=1&min=1&max=6&col=1&base=10&format=plain&rnd=new";
        $.get(apiEndpoint, function(data, status){
            console.log(status);
            console.log(data);
            self.showJQueryApiResult(data);
        });
        console.log("getJQueryRandomNumber done!");
    }

    this.showJQueryApiResult = function(randomNumber){
        console.log("showJQueryApiResult...");
        document.getElementById("jqueryNote").innerHTML = "Here is your random number "+randomNumber+"!";
        console.log("showJQueryApiResult done!");
    }

    // this function does not work as it does not use this
    function showJQueryApiResult(randomNumber){
        console.log("showJQueryApiResult...");
        document.getElementById("jqueryNote").innerHTML = "Here is your random number "+randomNumber+"!";
        console.log("showJQueryApiResult done!");
    }

});
</script>

Source code on Github




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